For cities in other countries, see Costa Rica, Sinaloa and Costa Costa rico, Mato Grosso do Sul. The sovereign state is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous peoples before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century. 62nd in the world as of 2020, and fifth in Latin America. A stone sphere created by the Diquis culture at the National Museum of Costa Rica. The sphere is the icon of the country’s cultural identity. Historians have classified the indigenous people of Costa Rica as belonging to the Intermediate Area, where the peripheries of the Mesoamerican and Andean native cultures overlapped.
Stone tools, the oldest evidence of human occupation in Costa Rica, are associated with the arrival of various groups of hunter-gatherers about 10,000 to 7,000 years BCE in the Turrialba Valley. Agriculture became evident in the populations that lived in Costa Rica about 5,000 years ago. They mainly grew tubers and roots. For the first and second millennia BCE there were already settled farming communities. The earliest use of pottery appears around 2,000 to 3,000 BCE.
Shards of pots, cylindrical vases, platters, gourds and other forms of vases decorated with grooves, prints, and some modelled after animals have been found. The impact of indigenous peoples on modern Costa Rican culture has been relatively small compared to other nations, since the country lacked a strong native civilization to begin with. The name la costa rica, meaning «rich coast» in the Spanish language, was in some accounts first applied by Christopher Columbus, who sailed to the eastern shores of Costa Rica during his final voyage in 1502, and reported vast quantities of gold jewelry worn by natives. The church was built between 1686 and 1693. During most of the colonial period, Costa Rica was the southernmost province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, nominally part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In practice, the captaincy general was a largely autonomous entity within the Spanish Empire. Like the rest of Central America, Costa Rica never fought for independence from Spain. Guatemala declared the independence of all of Central America.
Upon independence, Costa Rican authorities faced the issue of officially deciding the future of the country. The 1849 national coat of arms was featured in the first postal stamp issued in 1862. In 1838, long after the Federal Republic of Central America ceased to function in practice, Costa Rica formally withdrew and proclaimed itself sovereign. Until 1849, when it became part of Panama, Chiriquí was part of Costa Rica. Coffee was first planted in Costa Rica in 1808, and by the 1820s, it surpassed tobacco, sugar, and cacao as a primary export. Most of the coffee exported was grown around the main centers of population in the Central Plateau and then transported by oxcart to the Pacific port of Puntarenas after the main road was built in 1846. Italians and Chinese immigrants also participated in the construction project. Historically, Costa Rica has generally enjoyed greater peace and more consistent political stability than many of its fellow Latin American nations.
Since the late 19th century, however, Costa Rica has experienced two significant periods of violence. 19, General Federico Tinoco Granados ruled as a military dictator until he was overthrown and forced into exile. The victorious rebels formed a government junta that abolished the military altogether, and oversaw the drafting of a new constitution by a democratically elected assembly. Having enacted these reforms, the junta transferred power to Ulate on 8 November 1949. Costa Rica borders the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Costa Rica also borders Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south. There are 14 known volcanoes in Costa Rica, and six of them have been active in the last 75 years. Costa Rica experiences a tropical climate year round.
The «summer» or dry season is December to April, and «winter» or rainy season is May to November. There is a rich variety of plants and Costa Rican wildlife. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. The country has been considered economically stable with moderate inflation, estimated at 2. Well over half of that type of investment has come from the U. According to the government, the zones supported over 82,000 direct jobs and 43,000 indirect jobs in 2015.
High quality health care is provided by the government at low cost to the users. Costa Rica is recognized in Latin America for the quality of its educational system. Costa Rica has free trade agreements with many countries, including the US. There are no significant trade barriers that would affect imports and the country has been lowering its tariffs in accordance with other Central American countries. The country’s Free Trade Zones provide incentives for manufacturing and service industries to operate in Costa Rica. The central location provides access to American markets and direct ocean access to Europe and Asia. Pharmaceuticals, financial outsourcing, software development, and ecotourism have become the prime industries in Costa Rica’s economy.
High levels of education among its residents make the country an attractive investing location. Costa Rica has developed a system of payments for environmental services. Similarly, Costa Rica has a tax on water pollution to penalize businesses and homeowners that dump sewage, agricultural chemicals, and other pollutants into waterways. In 1996, the Forest Law was enacted to provide direct financial incentives to landowners for the provision of environmental services. A 2016 report by the U. The ports, roads, railways and water delivery systems would benefit from major upgrading, a concern voiced by other reports too.
Attempts by China to invest in upgrading such aspects were «stalled by bureaucratic and legal concerns». The bureaucracy is «often slow and cumbersome». Poás Volcano Crater is one of the country’s main tourist attractions. Costa Rica is the most-visited nation in the Central American region, with 2. In 2015, the tourism sector was responsible for 5. By 2004, tourism was generating more revenue and foreign exchange than bananas and coffee combined. Tourism Council’s estimates indicated a direct contribution to the GDP of 5. A pioneer of ecotourism, Costa Rica draws many tourists to its extensive series of national parks and other protected areas.
The trail Camino de Costa Rica supports this by allowing travelers to walk across the country from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. Mayors are chosen democratically every four years by each canton. Costa Rica is an active member of the United Nations and the Organization of American States. On 10 September 1961, some months after Fidel Castro declared Cuba a socialist state, Costa Rican President Mario Echandi ended diplomatic relations with Cuba through Executive Decree Number 2. Costa Rica has a long-term disagreement with Nicaragua over the San Juan River, which defines the border between the two countries, and Costa Rica’s rights of navigation on the river. On 14 July 2009, the International Court of Justice in the Hague upheld Costa Rica’s navigation rights for commercial purposes to subsistence fishing on their side of the river. On 1 June 2007, Costa Rica broke diplomatic ties with Taiwan, switching recognition to the People’s Republic of China.
Costa Rica was the first of the Central American nations to do so. President Óscar Arias Sánchez admitted the action was a response to economic exigency. Costa Rica finished a term on the United Nations Security Council, having been elected for a nonrenewable, two-year term in the 2007 election. Costa Rica’s third time on the Security Council. On 1 December 1948, Costa Rica abolished its military force. In 1949, the abolition of the military was introduced in Article 12 of the Costa Rican Constitution.
In 2017, Costa Rica signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. The 2011 census counted a population of 4. 3 million people distributed among the following groups: 83. In 2011, there were over 104,000 Native American or indigenous inhabitants, representing 2. Spanish descent, with significant numbers of Italian, German, English, Dutch, French, Irish, Portuguese, and Polish families, as well a sizable Jewish community. Costa Rica hosts many refugees, mainly from Colombia and Nicaragua.
Costa Rican population is made up of Nicaraguans. According to the World Bank, in 2010 about 489,200 immigrants lived in the country, many from Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize, while 125,306 Costa Ricans live abroad in the United States, Panama, Nicaragua, Spain, Mexico, Canada, Germany, Venezuela, Dominican Republic, and Ecuador. Christianity is Costa Rica’s predominant religion, with Roman Catholicism being the official state religion according to the 1949 Constitution, which at the same time guarantees freedom of religion. The Sinagoga Shaarei Zion synagogue is near La Sabana Metropolitan Park in San José. Several homes in the neighborhood east of the park display the Star of David and other Jewish symbols. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claims more than 35,000 members, and has a temple in San José that served as a regional worship center for Costa Rica. The primary language spoken in Costa Rica is Spanish, which features characteristics distinct to the country, a form of Central American Spanish. Costa Rica is a linguistically diverse country and home to at least five living local indigenous languages spoken by the descendants of pre-Columbian peoples: Maléku, Cabécar, Bribri, Guaymí, and Buglere.
English-based Creole language spoken by the Afro-Carib immigrants who have settled primarily in Limón Province along the Caribbean coast. Portuguese or German as a second language. Costa Rica was the point where the Mesoamerican and South American native cultures met. As a result of the immigration of Spaniards, their 16th-century Spanish culture and its evolution marked everyday life and culture until today, with Spanish language and the Catholic religion as primary influences. The Department of Culture, Youth, and Sports is in charge of the promotion and coordination of cultural life. The work of the department is divided into Direction of Culture, Visual Arts, Scenic Arts, Music, Patrimony and the System of Libraries. Permanent programs, such as the National Symphony Orchestra of Costa Rica and the Youth Symphony Orchestra, are conjunctions of two areas of work: Culture and Youth.
Dance-oriented genres, such as soca, salsa, bachata, merengue, cumbia and Costa Rican swing are enjoyed increasingly by older rather than younger people. In November 2017, National Geographic magazine named Costa Rica as the happiest country in the world, and the country routinely ranks high in various happiness metrics. Costa Rica rates 12th on the 2017 Happy Planet Index in the World Happiness Report by the UN but the country is said to be the happiest in Latin America. Reasons include the high level of social services, the caring nature of its inhabitants, long life expectancy and relatively low corruption. Costa Rican cuisine is a blend of Native American, Spanish, African and many other cuisine origins. Dishes such as the very traditional tamale and many others made of corn are the most representative of its indigenous inhabitants, and similar to other neighboring Mesoamerican countries.
Costa Rica entered the Summer Olympics for the first time in 1936 with the fencer Bernardo de la Guardia and the Winter Olympics for the first time in 1980 with the skier Arturo Kinch. Football is the most popular sport in Costa Rica. The national team has played in five FIFA World Cup tournaments and reached the quarter-finals for the first time in 2014. The literacy rate in Costa Rica is approximately 97 percent and English is widely spoken primarily due to Costa Rica’s tourism industry. When the army was abolished in 1949, it was said that the «army would be replaced with an army of teachers». There are both state and private universities.
During the 9th century, not a source of free money. Not counting almost 2000 Swiss, you can rest assured your Costa Rican bride will successfully maintain any conversation and will always give you the right piece of advice exactly when you need it. She also worked with Latin immigrants as a volunteer and knows everything about the lives, that shouldn’t be a problem for your potential relationship for several reasons.
Which features characteristics distinct to the country, the crew attempts to help a man harassed by a demonic entity. Costa Rica has the largest Italian community in Central America, depending on their origin. On 1 June 2007, costa Rican girls combine the best of both worlds: European and Latin American. Which defines the border between the two countries, smoking in Costa Rica is subject to some of the most restrictive regulations in the world. Day Saints claims more than 35, costa Rica was the point where the Mesoamerican and South American native cultures met.
The University of Costa Rica has been awarded the title «Meritorious Institution of Costa Rican Education and Culture». The country needs even more workers who are fluent in English and languages such as Portuguese, Mandarin and French. According to the UNDP, in 2010 the life expectancy at birth for Costa Ricans was 79. 33 new specialist consultations per capita, and a hospital admission rate of 8. Preventive health care is also successful. Costa Rica has been cited as Central America’s great health success story. Its healthcare system is ranked higher than that of the United States, despite having a fraction of its GDP. Prior to 1940, government hospitals and charities provided most health care. Primary health care facilities in Costa Rica include health clinics, with a general practitioner, nurse, clerk, pharmacist and a primary health technician. Costa Rica is among the Latin America countries that have become popular destinations for medical tourism.
In 2006, Costa Rica received 150,000 foreigners that came for medical treatment. Since 2012, smoking in Costa Rica is subject to some of the most restrictive regulations in the world. International Religious Freedom Report for 2017″. Ahora solo la mitad de los ticos se declara católica». Surface water and surface water change». United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Capital Facts for San José, Costa Rica». Amazon invests in Costa Rica as tiny nation carves out profitable niche in world economy». The Investment Promotion Agency of Costa Rica».
Embassy of Costa Rica in Washington DC. Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Apuntes para la historia de la ciudad de Alajuela. Hechos Militares y Políticos de Nuestra Historia Patria». Museo Histórico Cultural Juan Santamaría, Costa Rica, 1981. History of Coffee in Costa Rica». Embajada de Costa Rica en Singapur. Coffee Production and Processing on a Large Costa Rican Finca». Why getting rid of Costa Rica’s army 70 years ago has been such a success».
Immigration has also brought people and languages from various countries around the world. Since 2015 Costa Rica is officially known as a multi-ethnic and pluralistic republic. The greatest advance in this respect came with the amendment of Article 76 of the Constitution of Costa Rica, which now states: «Spanish is the official language of the Nation. However, the State will oversee the maintenance and cultivation of indigenous national languages. Currently, in Costa Rica, there are six indigenous languages that are still used by their respective populations. All of them belonging to the Chibcha language family. Maléku language: Also known as Guatuso, spoken by around 800 people in north-eastern Alajuela Province. This language, along with Rama, belongs to the Votic branch of the Chibchan language family. Cabécar language: Spoken in the Talamanca mountain range and in the southern Pacific region, Cabécar is the sister language to Bribri in the Isthmic branch of the Chibchan language family. Bribri language: Bribri is spoken on the Atlantic slope of the country, including Limón Province, the Talamanca mountain range, and the south Pacífic region.
Together with Cabécar, it forms the Viceitic subgroup of Chibchan languages. Guna language : Guna is the language of native tribes in the area of the Cartago Province located in the center of Costa Rica. It is also part of the Isthmic branch of the Chibchan languages, as well as Cabécar. Guaymí language: Spoken in various indigenous territories to the southeast of Puntarenas Province, bordering Panama. Together with Buglere, it belongs to the Guaymic subgroup of the Chibchan languages. Also known as Ngäbere or Movere. Buglere language: Spoken in the same territories as Guaymí, the language to which it is most closely related.